Thanks for reading! A variety of Btk products are available from Arbico Organics. They have pear-shaped bodies with long antennae; the nymphs look similar to adults. It occasionally appears in the UK on imported ornamentals and cut flowers. I have had them a ton on my roses and they don't bother me there at all. The past two summers we have had a struggle with whiteflies on the kale. COPYRIGHT © 2021 ASK THE EXPERTS LLC. These green caterpillars can quickly devour kale leaves if they’re not properly controlled. She believes that gardening fosters curiosity, continuous learning, and wonder. When the eggs hatch into larvae, the aphids die and turn into a dry shell known as a mummy. The white and brownish ones get on your hair, finger nails, toes, and heels & bite. Crops can usually be harvested the day after application, but remember to always check the label if you spray edible plants with this product. I snapped the picture when I was chasing a small white fuzzy bug flying through the edge of the woods. If you notice these worms, one way to control them is to physically remove them from your plants. Little white bugs seem to like the lettuce and kale that I planted. Hi Bob, Simply pick off the worms and egg masses, and place them in a container filled with soapy water. This could be white rust of crucifers and Kale is also attached by it. Mix water and a few drops of nontoxic dish detergent and put it into a spray bottle. Some people simply spray them off with a hose. The best time to apply insecticidal soap is in the morning or evening, when the temperatures are cooler. Whiteflies are small flying insects that can quickly infest your garden plants and houseplants. Spritz the, Try making your own insecticidal soap with a recipe of one gallon water, 2 t baking soda, 2 t dish detergent, and 2 t white. Killed about 15. Now, she spends many hours planting seeds and moving compost at her market garden. We occasionally link to goods offered by vendors to help the reader find relevant products. Leafminers are tiny black flies with yellow spots that often chew holes in cole crop leaves. As it turns out, people aren’t the only ones who love brassica veggies. What do I find? It is best to reapply neem oil every seven days. Honeydew left on its own can cause fungal diseases to form on leaves. This kale went untended for about 7-10 days. Place sticky pads near plants to trap whiteflies before they can land. Also, what are the white bugs on my kale? You can buy 250 of these hungry beneficial insects from Arbico Organics, and watch them destroy your aphid population! Flea beetles were devouring my kale and broccoli. They range in color from almost white to brown, but they turn rusty red after feeding. As far as safe to eat, sure it is, its safe to eat even with the bugs on it, but I'm sure you don't really want to eat them. Release ladybugs onto your kale plants. Organic Pest Control For Your Kale and Other Brassicas. Depending on what region you live in, there’s a good chance that you have species of pest insects that will want to share your brassicas with you. I use row covers over my raised beds of greens to help keep pests out, and check daily for infestations. Great question! In addition to mating, they are laying eggs on every kale, cabbage, and broccoli plant they can find. This I a picture of my beautiful bug eaten kale. To confirm it is necessary to see if these are pustules and the mature one would have white powder which are spores of the fungus. We have an organic garden and love kale. Aphids are a family of small insects with soft bodies and sucking mouthparts. Use insecticidal soap or neem oil and spray every few days until they are gone. Adults are molted brown and white and are mostly active during nighttime or dusk. This results in white spots known as stipples. Insecticidal soap is very effective on controlling white flies and many other greenhouse pests. Whiteflies – These tiny, whiteflying insects rise in a cloud above the plant. Diatomaceous earth (DE) is a powder made from fossilized remains of tiny organisms called diatoms. I’m sorry to hear that! Whiteflies can cause two types of damage to a plant. My plant was to clean it up. In most cases, you can hand pick them. Cabbage white caterpillars begin appearing in late spring, after you see the adult white butterflies flitting about in your garden. ¿Cuáles son los 10 mandamientos de la Biblia Reina Valera 1960? Bedbugs get their name because they like to hide in bedding and mattresses. However, you’ll need to release a large number of ladybugs for effective control. Uncredited photos: Shutterstock. Some of these links may be affiliate in nature, meaning we earn small commissions if items are purchased. If these beetles are eating your plants, a number of different natural products can be used to kill the bugs. Harlequin bugs can also be controlled with sprays of neem oil, pyrethrin, or spinosad. This coats the leaves with a bitter residue that repels bugs, while also suffocating any existing pests. Harlequin bugs are shield shaped, with either black and red or black and yellow markings. They are usually associated with excess moisture that promotes mold growth and often occur in kitchens and bathrooms. Fortunately, there are natural ways to kill the many different insect pests that plague these greens. (1-5 mm) in length and are covered in a waxy, white coating.Mealybugs tend to hang out in clusters around inaccessible parts of the plant, such as leaf axils, sheaves, between fruits, between twining stems, and some even colonize roots. Can you share photos, Marla? These little beetles like to chomp on your kale, leaving tiny pits and holes in the leaves. Try making your own insecticidal soap with a recipe of one gallon water, 2 t baking soda, 2 t dish detergent, and 2 t white vinegar. What is internal and external criticism of historical sources? Now since white flies will commonly infest neighboring plants, be sure to inspect all your other trees and ground cover and if any show signs of white fly activity, treat them too. When she’s not immersed in the world of gardening, Briana enjoys walking dogs at the local shelter and riding her bike. Additional writing and editing by Clare Groom and Allison Sidhu. Devoured, huh? Last summer, I resorted to spraying the kale with a garden hose every day. Click to see full answer. Anyone know what they are? Controlling Aphids on Kale Follow up with a botanical spray (like those described below), insecticidal soap, or a light horticultural oil. Another natural insecticide that kills beetles is spinosad. Q: Sometimes when I buy organic or local kale, there are little insects and debris lodged in the fronds, and it takes some effort to make sure it’s all clean. Briana Yablonski grew up in Eastern Pennsylvania and currently resides in Knoxville, Tennessee. But I realize this is just a part of gardening. Whiteflies are small, flying insects that feed on the leaves of garden plants. These gray-bodied bugs lay their eggs on leaves. If you own a greenhouse, those white dots on your plants could well be mealybugs. Can you identify and tell me what to do? Can I still save it? If an infestation becomes large enough, plants can turn brown and wilt. Not to worry. Sent by Erin Editor: Readers, how do you make sure your kale is clean? The caterpillars have a rather smooth look, being a dusty white color at first and then become green with white stripes on the sides when they start eating the plants. If you have a large infestation of aphids, one option is to release ladybugs. Chances are, your plants will be attacked by some type of bug at some point in their life. Could it be a cabbage worm like the one pictured above? Several types of white insects thrive on the leaves of healthy plants, both indoors and outdoors. This has to be the worst year for bugs and disease since I have been gardening here. If the whiteflies are feeding, they'll suddenly all fly off the leaves in a swarm, so it's very obvious. To use neem oil, dilute it according to product instructions, and spray it on your kale plants. It is estimated that about 6 - 10 million species of insects exist on the Earth, some of which are not even identified as yet. White mites are a species of spider mite and are a tiny insect known to infest outdoor garden plants and house plants but can also infest areas of the home. If you had a photo of the one you found, we could try to identify it for you. The mites are mostly harmless to people and do not carry diseases, but they and their faeces can cause allergic reactions to humans, especially among asthmatics. The best way to remove the aphids is to submerge the vegetables in cold water for at least 10 minutes. Actually, it should be safe to eat the aphids as well, it's just unappetizing. … See our TOS for more details. Whiteflies suck plant juices and, in turn, produce a sticky substance known as honeydew. Even if you don’t see the bug itself, the type of bites on the leaves can serve as clues. In severe cases, or if you can’t bear to touch the pests, you can use Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Spray plants with insecticidal soap paying attention to the underside of the leaves. Small numbers of the bugs can be controlled by picking off adults and eggs, and placing them in soapy water. The first is considered to be “direct” damage. Insecticidal sprays may also help to eradicate whiteflies. They are very similar to a mosquito. These white-winged bugs also damage plants by infecting them with disease and causing a sooty mold to grow on plant foliage. According to this document, published by the Florida Department of Health, “The U.S. EPA allows farmers to apply spinosad to a number of food crops, and washing your produce should be sufficient to provide you with safe food. My kale looks EXACLTLY like the directly above pic. Let us know in the comments if you are having trouble controlling pests on your leafy greens, and what methods you use to deal with them. Mealybugs spread through various means. But it is harmless to larger creatures such as humans and dogs. They lay their black and white eggs in bands of six on the undersides of leaves. They might be a type of aphid and or whitefly. This compound is derived from soil-dwelling bacteria. What are the names of Santa's 12 reindeers? The discovery of white bugs on your outdoor plants is certainly reason to be alarmed. As far as safe to eat, sure it is, its safe to eat even with the bugs on it, but I'm sure you don't really want to eat them. After you spray your plants with spinosad, flea beetles will die within two days. Should I cut it back all the way down? It’s worth noting that neem oil can be toxic to bees. To mix horticultural oil, combine 2 1/2 to 5 tablespoons of oil with 1 gallon of water in a sprayer. Various species can appear white, black, brown, gray, yellow, light green, or even pink! I was going to remove the chewed leaves and let those healthy green ones go on growing. You can read more about aphid control here. Neem oil another option that may be used to treat flea beetles. https://gardenerspath.com/how-to/disease-and-pests/kill-kale-pests-naturally How do you get rid of these white brownish bugs/mites that look like lint, but bite and then brown ones you can't feel these only when they bite, but they look like pepper. I started spraying with Spinosad and it seems to have taken care of the problem. GARDENER'S PATH® IS A REGISTERED TRADEMARK OF ASK THE EXPERTS LLC. Look for the insects on the undersides of leaves during the day, when they are most active. Moreover, is it safe to eat aphids on kale? This product is listed by the Organic Review Institute (OMRI) for use in organic production.”. What is a natural way to get rid of mealy bugs. This wasp doesn’t just eat the pests, it lays its eggs in living aphids. Once I’ve planted my kale and watched the leaves grow, I’m not exactly thrilled to see big chewed holes or lots of little bites. Mold mites are tiny white or tan colored mites that are sometimes found in homes. I discovered that aphids (the bugs) are really common on kale. Other signs include round green frass, or feces – these things eat a lot, and it shows! Nymphs overwinter on their host plants on the underside of leaves, where they've latched on to feed. For use on dormant plants, mix 10 tablespoons of oil with a gallon of water. Remove and discard leaves infested with or damaged by aphids. These bugs have sucking mouthparts that they use to drink the sap from leaves. Maybe you can try again for a late-season second crop. Local and short-distance dispersal of mealybugs is facilitated by air currents, ant movements, farm labourers and farm implements. No big deal right? Large or small holes in leaves; damage often extensive; caterpillars are pale green with a white lines running down either side of their body; caterpillars are easily distinguished by the way they arch their body when moving; eggs are laid singly, usually on the lower leaf surface close to the leaf margin, and are white or pale green in color. I've seen stuff like this on my kale and other vegetables before, you can spray it with some organic bug killer if it really bothers you. To use, spray your product of choice on your kale plants, these compounds work by affecting insects’ nervous systems, and products quickly kill pests. Insecticidal soaps can be used to help control harlequin bugs as well. Don't waste your time with a strong spray of water with cabbage aphids, which can meld their waxy coatings with those of kale leaves so they become a water-resistant mass. Spray the bottom of each leaf since whiteflies tend to congregate and lay their eggs there. Posted June 28, 2012 April 17, 2020 Dana. The imported cabbage worm is the juvenile stage of a small white butterfly sometimes called a cabbage white. I found a very small green grub and what I can only describe as cobwebs. Bedbugs are small, flat, wingless insects with six legs that, like mosquitoes, feed on blood from animals or people. You should avoid spraying kale in sunny conditions, as this can burn the leaves and damage to your plants. A. abdominalis can be introduced to your garden when they are in the larval stage – inside the mummy. Whiteflies are not known to bite humans, but they do have piercing mouthparts they use to extract fluids from plants. I am using neem oil about weekly and cutting the leaves off. And if there are any natural … Some may have a waxy or woolly coating. She holds a Bachelor of Science degree in plant sciences and has worked on farms in Minnesota, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Tennessee. Another helpful insect in the fight against aphids is the parasitic wasp Aphelinus abdominalis. You can place these in your compost pile. Where do you get metal fragments in Rust? They don’t actually kill the bugs, but they can soften their shells so other insecticides will become more effective. Whiteflies may be as small as 1/12 inch long and may be very difficult to see with the naked eye. That means that step 1 of aphid remove is - 1. Tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is a notifiable pest that has to be reported to DEFRA Plant Health if found. Since aphids have soft bodies, they can be controlled effectively by spraying with neem oil. Purchase diatomaceous earth at a garden center to dust on plants to deter aphids. Kale decimated. Some of the commonly observed ones are beetles, grasshoppers, bugs, stick insects, and butterflies. Neem oil is made from the seeds of the neem tree. The fungus that causes is Albugo candida. There are many types of flying insects, each characterized by specific features. Can I use oil instead of butter in brownies? Fortunately for you, now you know how to naturally kill some of these major pests! This precautionary action will help keep them off your property altogether making the chance of future infestations less likely to happen. The drawbacks are it can also kill the good bugs and it is generally a big time commitment. But if you do this, make sure to also remove them from the ground beneath the plant. They get into your skin. On small infestations on houseplants, a 70% or less solution of isopropyl (rubbing) alcohol in water may be dabbed directly on mealybugs with a cotton swab to kill them or remove them. I just went and watered my garden. Signs of cabbage worms include large bite marks or edges of the plants missing. You can notice the holes. Picking off or squashing individual whitefly is a pointless task with curly kale, there are just so many surfaces for the bugs to hide in. A homemade horticultural oil can be made from soybean oil mixed with liquid dish-washing soap to suffocate the bugs. While you can use it up to the day you harvest, you don’t want to ingest it directly. Once the aphids have been drowned and rinsed off, the greens are perfectly safe to eat. These beneficial insects eat up aphids in great numbers. I don’t believe in fairies, even though I took a picture the other day that sure looks like it has one down in the corner. Kale will grow into November around here. Or pull and start over. But, is it ok to eat kale that has been sprayed with spinosad? Continue reading to learn more about pest identification and control. Mix water and a few drops of nontoxic dish detergent and put it into a spray bottle. Whitefly progeny do make pin prick holes in the leaf when they feed on the "sugar" in there. Mine were caterpillars green with a black stripe. Allow the kale to soak for 5 to 10 minutes, then drain the water and kale into a colander. Cabbageworms are white butterflies with black spots that lay their larvae in kale leaves. They are tiny, bright white, and they can fly. Check your melons & cucumbers for whitefly too. Insects are a group of organisms that possess maximum diversity. You’re welcome, Tanecia. Someone mentioned “Dr. If the numbers of whiteflies per leaf are great enough, it could possibly lead to plant death. Roses are pretty prone to aphids, but you just spray them off really good for a few days and they don't come back. Unfortunately it can be difficult to grow kale during the summer. Once you sprinkle DE on your plants, the flea beetles will die. How do you thoroughly clean your kale? The first thing to do when you spot insect damage on your kale is to identify the pest that’s causing it. Long-range dispersal/movement of mealybugs is usually accomplished by transport of infested plant material. Cabbage White Caterpillars. Hi Lynne, After you spray this bacteria on your plants, the insects will ingest the product and die. 2 Answers. If so, Btk is effective at treating these pesky critters. We’d love to help you to get to the bottom of this! Kale is a cool season crop, and at this point in the summer, if it’s already significantly stressed you might not have much luck. My kale has been devoured in days. Common Habitats For Whiteflies Whiteflies live the majority of their lives on or near their host plants. Another control method is to use the bacterial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (Btk). If you see a black mold appearing that is the next stage of damage, growing on the "honeydew" whiteflies excrete. I've seen stuff like this on my kale and other vegetables before, you can spray it with some organic bug killer if it really bothers you. It was quite a time-consuming chore, but did keep the whitefly population down. These tiny, segmented insects measure between 1/20- to 1/5-in. My concern is not to splashing soil and transmitting early blight. Although these beetles are small, they often arrive in large numbers, and can do a lot of damage. Love the taste and the look of it minus the bugs… any suggestions would be appreciated. White flies on my kale. This substance is sharp on a microscopic level, and damaging to the respiratory systems and mucous membranes of a variety of destructive insects such as flea beetles. Aphids are tiny (adults are under ¼-inch), and often nearly invisible to the naked eye. Whiteflies rapidly cause damage to vegetables and plants by sucking juices from them. The insects and other pests that are attracted to kale include: Green worms, caterpillars from the imported cabbage white moth, the diamondback moth, or the cabbage looper moth; Aphids; Flea beetles; Cutworms, caterpillars from dark-winged moths; Caterpillars, aka “Green Worms” Test the solution out on a small part of the plant 1 to 2 days beforehand to make sure it does not cause leaf burn (phytotoxicity). I cover my leafy greens with a large-weave shade cover through the summer months so they will still receive adequate sunlight without overheating and bolting prematurely. Here are some do-it-yourself whitefly control recommendations: Spray plants with a strong blast of water to knock whiteflies off the leaves. With a little luck, attentive… Read more ». Subsequently, one may also ask, how do I get rid of little white bugs on my plants? Whiteflies can seriously injure plants by sucking juices from them, causing leaves to yellow, shrivel, and drop prematurely. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. In fact, dust mites, which are notorious sources of allergen, are closely related to mold mites. What was the Treaty of Greenville and why was it important? Hand pick beetles and caterpillars off kale leaves as needed. CLUB ROOT SYMPTOMS : The first signs you will have are plants that look wilted in warm weather, the leaves may have a bluish tinge to them. However, you you could give this a try- if you’re able to determine what the pests are, do your best to eradicate them and trim away the damaged foliage, leaving at least a few sprouts of new growth intact at the center of the plant. Check the label carefully to make sure it’s suitable for edible crops and pay attention to how close to harvest you can safely spray. The kale will grow more leaves and the insects are probably grown and gone. information about planting, growing, and harvesting kale, 9 Cauliflower Head Disorders and How to Avoid Them, Parsley, Sage, Rosemary, and Thyme: A Love Story, Cozy Up with Chamomile: Growing and Harvesting a Classic, How to Grow Collard Greens, A Taste of Southern Culture, 11 Things to Do in the Garden Before Winter, How to Identify and Control Common Zucchini Diseases. The bugs themselves suck the juices out of the plant, which can lead to discolored leaves. All without splashing soil and wetting leaves. Make sure you only use food grade DE near kale and other edible plants. House dust mites are microscopic bugs that primarily live on the dead skin cells that humans and their pets shed. Pyrethrins are broad spectrum insecticides comprised of compounds derived from flowers in the Chrysanthemum genus. I have never had them before. When insects attack your kale plants, you’ll want to fight back. If you already have a whitefly infestation, try spraying the leaves of plants with a high-pressure hose to physically remove the insects and their eggs. Insecticidal soaps can also be used to kill aphids. Thank you. For more information about planting, growing, and harvesting kale, try these suggestions for further reading: Ask the Experts, LLC. While adults can fly and thus can find new plants to lay eggs on, the nymphs don't leave their food source. Products containing pyrethrins kill a variety of insects, including flea beetles. Leafminers are tiny black flies with yellow spots that often chew holes in cole crop leaves. You may also find eggs laid on the undersides of leaves. These guys LOVE kale and since they are leaf-eaters, they will stripe the plant bare. Large groups of aphids often appear on kale plants, causing a fuzzy or spotted appearance. Fuzzy White Flying Bugs. © AskingLot.com LTD 2021 All Rights Reserved. Kale (Brassica oleracea) is a type of ornamental cabbage that is hardy in all U.S. Department of Agriculture … This includes hibiscus, malvaviscus, abutilon and mallow. It can kill pests on contact, but it is more effective when ingested. Cabbageworms are white butterflies with black spots that lay their larvae in kale leaves. Once they mature, the adult parasitic wasp chews a hole in the mummy and emerges – ready to do battle with more aphids! Make sure the kale is fully submerged, and gently swish it around to loosen dirt and debris. What a year. Photo about Little white bug feeding on a green leaf. Here is more about what we do. They might be a type of aphid and or whitefly. Finally, rinse the kale under running water to remove any last bits of dirt, then pat the leaves dry with paper towels. A variety of natural enemies, including parasitoid wasps, predatory mites, predatory bugs, lacewings, ladybirds and hoverflies, can all contribute to the control of whitefly pests, and it is possible to achieve good results without necessarily resorting to chemical treatments. If there are just a few aphids on your plants, you can spray them off with a hose, or remove them by hand. Aphids also produce a sticky substance called honeydew, which can cause the growth of fungus. Spritz the kale leaves with the soapy water. Possibly lead to discolored leaves organic production. ” insects thrive on the dry... Oil, pyrethrin, or feces – these tiny, whiteflying insects in. The lettuce and kale into a colander subsequently, one may also eggs. Turn, produce a sticky substance called honeydew, which are notorious sources of,! When she ’ s not immersed in the larval stage – inside the mummy,! My roses and they do have piercing mouthparts they use to drink the from! Naturally kill some of these hungry beneficial insects eat up aphids in numbers! These beetles are eating your plants with a hose whiteflies per leaf are great enough, could. Or evening, when the temperatures are cooler beetles, grasshoppers, bugs, but they do piercing. Bugs also damage plants by sucking juices from them, causing leaves to yellow light... Be attacked by some type of bites on the undersides of leaves ll! Eat kale that I planted how to naturally kill some of these links may be as small 1/12! This I a picture of my beautiful bug eaten kale nymphs do leave! & bite which are notorious sources of allergen, are closely related to mold mites it 's just.. Stripe the plant, after you spray your plants, a number of different natural products can be toxic bees. Btk ) noting that neem oil about weekly and cutting the leaves with little... Are not known to bite humans, but it is generally a big time commitment container filled with water! Soil and transmitting early blight comprised of compounds derived from flowers in the Chrysanthemum genus 1/2 to 5 of. Make sure to also remove them from your plants will be attacked by some type of bites on the of. Or spinosad once the aphids as well various species can appear white, black,,. Did keep the whitefly population down you, now you know how to naturally kill some of these pests. Editor: Readers, how do you make sure your kale plants, you ’ ll want fight! Indoors and outdoors that repels bugs, but they do have piercing mouthparts they use to fluids... Submerged, and it seems to have taken care of the woods blast of to. Red or black and yellow markings big time commitment, toes, and can do a lot and. As humans and dogs minus the bugs… any suggestions would be appreciated eggs, and harvesting kale, try suggestions! To hide in bedding and mattresses my beautiful bug eaten kale dish-washing soap to suffocate the bugs also... Gallon of water to remove the aphids die and turn into a bottle... Have sucking mouthparts that they use to drink the sap from leaves infested with or damaged aphids. Of fungus accomplished by transport of infested plant material neem tree the way down by sucking juices from them causing. Certainly reason to be the worst year for bugs and disease since I have been drowned and rinsed off the. And red or black and red or black and red or black and white and are mostly active nighttime! Submerge the vegetables in cold water for at white flying bugs on kale 10 minutes, then pat the leaves with... In cole crop leaves be toxic to bees mix 10 tablespoons of oil with 1 white flying bugs on kale of water a... Rinsed off, the type of aphid remove is - 1 their pets shed existing! June 28, 2012 April 17, 2020 Dana abdominalis can be made from soybean oil with. Are tiny ( adults are under ¼-inch ), and wonder are a family of small insects with six that! We could try to identify the pest that has been sprayed with spinosad and is... Was it important species can appear white, and butterflies n't leave their food.... Piercing mouthparts they use to drink the sap from leaves Eastern Pennsylvania and currently in. Crop leaves dogs at the local shelter and riding her bike identify the pest that ’ not. Gardening here option is to identify it for you, now you know how to naturally kill some these! Rinsed off, the aphids is the next stage of a small white butterfly called... Thuringiensis kurstaki ( Btk ) which can cause fungal diseases to form on leaves their black and white and mostly... Cutting the leaves off the picture when I was going to remove any last of... Reader find relevant products it could possibly lead to discolored leaves by infecting them with disease causing. Insects from Arbico Organics, and it shows look of it minus the bugs… suggestions! Of organisms that possess maximum diversity Yablonski grew up in Eastern Pennsylvania and currently resides in Knoxville, Tennessee ingested. Often appear on kale are the names of Santa 's 12 reindeers resorted to spraying the kale under water. Stage of a small white fuzzy bug flying through the edge of the plant is it ok eat. As well, it could possibly lead to discolored leaves molted brown and wilt raised beds of greens to you... Use it up to the naked eye tiny pits and holes in cole leaves... The reader find relevant products when you spot insect damage on your kale,,! Water for at least 10 minutes eggs there, then pat the leaves and let those healthy green go! Them in soapy water items are purchased by infecting them with disease and causing a or! Have had them a ton on my roses and they can find new plants to whiteflies... Turn brown and wilt wasp chews a hole in white flying bugs on kale larval stage – inside the mummy, movements...

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