Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. With the beginning of the Byzantine offensives in the East and the Balkans in the 10th century, especially under the warrior-emperors Nikephoros II (r. 963–969), John I Tzimiskes (r. 969–976) and Basil II (r. 976–1025), newly gained territories were also incorporated into themes, although these were generally smaller than the original themes established in the 7th and 8th centuries. Defeats to the Arabs continued as before, and the imminent loss of Alexandria allowed one Valentinos Arsakuni, a military governor of the Opsikion province, to capitalise on Martina’s unpopularity and take power for himself in September 641 CE. Coin of the Rashidun Caliphate with figure of Constans II standing facing, holding cross-tipped staff and globus cruciger. Naturally, this live-and-let-live compromise satisfied few passionate participants in the dispute. Now the Emperor ordered his Exarch of Ravenna to arrest the Pope. From there, in 663, he continued to Italy. The emperor considered moving his capital to his new home for greater safety, but this met obvious disapproval from the aristocracy at Constantinople with the Senate even forbidding any imperial family members from joining the emperor in Sicily. Biography of Constans II (excerpt) Constans II (Greek: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II), also called Constantine the Bearded (Kōnstantinos Pogonatos), (November 7, 630 – September 15, 668) was Byzantine emperor from 641 to 668. Constans II, in response to this, imprisoned the pope and made sure he received. Then he travels to the West making a new home for himself in Syracuse in Sicily. [12] The Byzantine historian Theophylact Simocatta, writing during the reign of Heraclius (r. 610–641), relayed information about China's geography, its capital city Khubdan (Old Turkic: Khumdan, i.e. pp. Constans owed his rise to the throne to a popular reaction against his uncle and to the protection of the soldiers led by the general Valentinus. Solidus of Constans II (from Dumbarton Oaks coin collection) The Themes in 668 AD from A History of the Byzantine State and Society by Warren Treadgold Period: 656-668 When Heraclius died in 641 CE, he had two heirs who ruled as co-emperors: Heraklonas (whose mother was Martina) and Constantine III (whose mother was Heraclius’ first wife Eudokia). Although on friendly terms with Vitalian, he stripped buildings, including the Pantheon, of their ornaments and bronze to be carried back to Constantinople, and in 666 declared the Pope of Rome to have no jurisdiction over the Archbishop of Ravenna, since that city was the seat of the exarch, his immediate representative. [4] The situation was complicated by the violent opposition to Monothelitism by the clergy in the west and the related rebellion of the Exarch of Carthage, Gregory the Patrician. The Arabs imploded in a bloody civil war which would last until 661 CE and divert their attention from further foreign conquests. He also was the last emperor to become consul … He attempted to end the Church’s divisive debate on Christ’s nature and will but succeeded in only antagonising the Popes and ensuring his name would be denigrated by Christian historians thereafter. In 658, with the eastern frontier under less pressure, Constans defeated the Slavs in the Balkans, temporarily reasserting some notion of Byzantine rule over them and resettled some of them in Anatolia (ca. Web. However, having attracted the hatred of the citizens of Constantinople, Constans decided to leave the capital and to move to Syracuse in Sicily. Pope Martin I had condemned both Monothelitism and Constans' attempt to halt debates over it in the Lateran Council of 649. Italics indicates a junior co-emperor, while underlining indicates a usurper. When Constantine died in mysterious circumstances a few months later, Martina was able to act as regent for her son Heraklonas, even declaring herself co-emperor. He was the last emperor to serve as consul, in 642. But I think both opinions should be given, with greater weight on Constans II. The sea battle was so devastating that the emperor escaped only by trading clothes with one of his men. Constans led a fleet to attack the Muslims at Phoinike (off Lycia) in 655 at the Battle of the Masts, but he was defeated: 500 Byzantine ships were destroyed in the battle, and the Emperor himself was almost killed. Konstans II (tiếng Hy Lạp: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II) (7 tháng 11, 630 – 15 tháng 9, 668), còn gọi là Konstantinos Râu (Kōnstantinos Pogonatos), là Hoàng đế Đông La Mã từ năm 641 đến 668. The legitimate line had been restored, but the new emperor was a mere 11 years of age and the empire was in disarray. – 1643 C.E. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. According to Warren Treadgold, the first themes were created between 659 and 661, during the reign of Constans II.[10]. Later that same year, his uncle was deposed by the general Valentinus, one of Heraclius’ most trusted generals, and Constans II was left as sole emperor. p. 312. Sometimes known as Constans Pogonatos (“the Bearded”), he came to the throne by a series of unlikely events and his empire was immediately challenged almost everywhere by the rising Arab Caliphate. Related Content Cartwright, M. (2017, December 07). On 15 September 668, he was assassinated in his bath by his chamberlain,[11] according to Theophilus of Edessa, with a bucket. Like so many of his predecessors, he faced endless revolts and usurpers and met his death at the hands of an assassin while taking a bath. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Constans_II/. Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Struck circa 647-670. The Sons of Constantine, AD 337-361: In the Shadows of Constantine and... Notebook: Coin Portraying Emperor Constans or Emperor Constantius II... Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Next, Crete, Kos, and Rhodes all fell to Arab raids in 654 CE. Heraclius (son of Constans II) Academic disciplines Business Concepts Crime Culture Economy Education Energy Events Food and drink Geography Government Health Human behavior Humanities Knowledge Law Life Mind Objects Organizations People Philosophy Society Sports Universe World Arts … Due to rumors that Heraklonas and Martina poisoned Constantine III, Constans II was named co-emperor. The Battle Of The Byzantine Empire Essay 1427 Words | 6 Pages. [1][2] Constans is a nickname given to the Emperor, who had been baptized Herakleios and reigned officially as Constantine. Constans was succeeded by his son, Constantine IV, who had already been crowned co-emperor in 654 CE and who would rule until 685 CE. In 654, however, Muawiyah renewed his raids by sea, plundering Rhodes. Constans II (aka Konstans II) was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668 CE. A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Later that same year, his uncle was deposed by the general Valentinus, one of Heraclius’ most trusted generals, and Constans II was left as sole emperor. ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Constans_II&oldid=996059562, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from September 2012, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from January 2019, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Imperator Caesar Heraclius/Flavius Constantinus Augustus, This page was last edited on 24 December 2020, at 08:49. 11 Jan 2021. While the Bulgars had thus deprived the empire of control in the north and central Balkans, the Byzantines could take comfort in the expeditions of 658 and 688/689 launched, respectively, by Constans II and Justinian II into Macedonia and in the formation of the themes of Thrace (687) and Hellas (695). In 647 they entered Armenia and Cappadocia and sacked Caesarea Mazaca. He was the last emperor to serve as consul, in 642. by Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. (CC BY-SA) Constans II (aka Konstans II) was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668 CE. Constans grew increasingly fearful that his younger brother, Theodosius, could oust him from the throne; he therefore obliged Theodosius to take holy orders and later had him killed in 660. [6] Death and succession Constans II (641–668) Pressures from beyond the empire’s border consumed the reign of Constans, grandson of Herakleios by his son Herakleios Constantine. Then, in the winter of 662-663, he made his camp at Athens.[9]. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. The plausible solution to why Constans reacts after the Battle of the Masts, is that Constans ended License. Mark is a history writer based in Italy. With Constans II’s death in 668, Constantine IV became the senior emperor. Pseudo-Byzantine types. Byzantine Empire, Constans II, September 641 - 15 July 668 A.D. (Or Heraclonas, April - Sep 641) Philip Grierson (DOC II) and Cecile Morrisson (Morrisson BnF) attribute this type to the short reign of Heraclonas, April - Sep 641 A.D. SH94501. Continue Reading. Stanford University Press. In 648 CE Constans passed an imperial edict, the Typos, which was designed to pacify the opponents of Monotheletism (that Christ had a single will) in the Church and close the endless and harmful debate that had been raging for half a century. [5] In the same year, they raided Africa and killed Gregory. At the age of 21 he personally led … Perhaps predictably, at the first opportunity, 5,000 of the Slav soldiers defected to the Arabs in 665 CE. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Constans II (Greek: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II Latin: Heraclius Constantinus or Flavius Constantinus Augustus); 7 November 630 – 15 September 668), also called Constantine the Bearded (Kōnstantinos Pogonatos), was Byzantine Emperor from 641 to 668. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Constans II using the centralized government of Heraclius to alter the system in which the military was supplied and payed, and to a degree establishing a system of military holdings. Victory at Nineveh put the empire back on its feet, but the new threat was the Arab Caliphate which showed its intent by crushing a Byzantine army at Yarmuk in 636 CE. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 07 Dec 2017. In 647 CE the Arabs overran Carthage in North Africa and parts of Asia Minor, notably capturing Caesarea. Not particularly popular (either at home or in Syracuse), subject to several rebellions, despised by half the Church and with too many failures on the battlefield, he would not be missed by many, but he had, at the very least, ensured there was still an empire to pass on to his successors. Constans ordered Saburrus, the commander of his army, to attack the Lombards again, but he was defeated by the Beneventani at Forino, between Avellino and Salerno. Exarch Olympius excused himself from this task, but his successor, Theodore I Calliopas, carried it out in 653. Constans II (Greek: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II; Latin: Heraclius Constantinus Augustus or Flavius Constantinus Augustus; 7 November 630 – 15 September 668), also called Constantine the Bearded (Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Πωγωνάτος Kōnstantinos ho Pogonatos), was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668. Constans responded by having the Constantinople Senate declare the Pope guilty of treason and exiling Martin to Cherson in the Crimea in 654 CE on the excuse that he had supported Olympios, the rebel governor of Byzantine Ravenna. In 659, Constans II signed a peace treaty with the Rashidun Caliphate. The Byzantine Empire was crumbling at the edges, there were revolts in North Africa and Italy, and Constans could have been forgiven for thinking it could not possibly get any worse. Constans II took the throne when he was 11 so the early victories of his reign- the brief reconquest of Alexandria and several naval battles- can’t really be credited to him. Bury saw in Constans II the creator of the Byzantine navy.1 Even if this assumption has been contradicted by some authoritative scholars, as H. Ahrweiler,2 other historians over the last century have agreed with it3 and this has been … Cartwright, Mark. https://www.ancient.eu/Constans_II/. Sometimes known as Constans Pogonatos (“the Bearded”), he came to the throne by a series of unlikely events and his empire was immediately challenged almost everywhere by the rising Arab Caliphate. Constans II and the Byzantine navy Cosentino, Salvatore 2008-04-01 00:00:00 SALVATORE COSENTINO/RAVENNA At the beginning of the twentieth century John B. In 663 Constans visited Rome for twelve days—the only emperor to set foot in Rome for two centuries—and was received with great honor by Pope Vitalian (657–672). Constans II (Greek: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II), also called "Constantine the Bearded" (Kōnstantinos Pogonatos), (November 7, 630 – September 15, 668) was Byzantine emperor from 641 to 668. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Icons, that is images of holy persons, were an important part of... Monasticism, that is individuals devoting themselves to an ascetic... Pilgrimage in the Byzantine Empire involved the Christian faithful... Trade and commerce were essential components of the success and... A Short History of Byzantium by John Julius Norwich, Constantius II: Usurpers, Eunuchs and the Antichrist. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. The truce that followed allowed a short respite and made it possible for Constans to hold on to the western portions of Armenia. Due to rumors that Heraklonas and Martina poisoned Constantine III, Constans II was named co-emperor. He was the last emperor to serve as consul, in 642. "θὲς ἄλλῳ νὶκην", see Bury, John Bagnell (1889). He also was the last emperor to become consul in 642, [1] [2] becoming the last Roman consul in history. However, the latter resisted and Constans withdrew to Naples. Meanwhile, Constans’ campaigns against the Lombards in Italy in 663 CE did not make much headway, although Sardinia had been held in 645 CE. A Byzantine fleet under the admiral Manuel occupied Alexandria again in 645, and the Alexandrians hailed him as a liberator, since the caliphate levied heavier taxes and showed less respect for their religion. Only by switching clothes with an ordinary seaman did Constans escape while the entire fleet (and the unfortunate seaman) were sent to the bottom of the Mediterranean. Taking advantage of the fact that Lombard king Grimoald I of Benevento was engaged against Frankish forces from Neustria, Constans disembarked at Taranto and besieged Lucera and Benevento. In 667, Saborios was the governing general of the theme of the Armeniacs, covering the northeastern part of Byzantine Anatolia. Academic disciplines Business Concepts Crime Culture Economy Education Warren Treadgold, Byzantium and Its Army 284–1081 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995). Heraclius had ruled as emperor since 610 CE, and his reign was a mixed one. But he was a quick learner and a talented general. Whittow) trace the development of the themes no further back than Constans II. A brief usurpation in Sicily by Mezezius was quickly suppressed by the new emperor. Google Arts & Culture features content from over 2000 leading museums and archives who have partnered with the Google Cultural Institute to bring the world's treasures online. Sometimes known as Constans Pogonatos (“the Bearded”), he came to the throne by a series of unlikely events and his empire was immediately challenged almost everywhere by the rising Arab Caliphate. a link on topic: BYZANTINE FOREIGN POLICY DURING THE REIGN OF CONSTANS II ... Our community welcomes everyone from around the world to discuss world history, historical periods, and themes in history - military history, archaeology, arts and culture, and history in … The latter fell in battle against the army of Caliph Uthman, and the region remained a vassal state under the Caliphate until civil war broke out and imperial rule was again restored. [7] Before the battle, chronicler Theophanes the Confessor says, the Emperor dreamed of being at Thessalonika; this dream predicted his defeat against the Arabs because the word Thessalonika is similar to the sentence "thes allo niken", which means "gave victory to another (the enemy)". Under Constans, the Byzantines completely withdrew from Egypt in 642, and Caliph Uthman launched numerous attacks on the islands of the Mediterranean Sea and Aegean Sea. In 644 Valentinus attempted to seize power for himself but failed. Whether Constans II was a usurper is open to debate: he was crowned after Constantin. In a time where war was constant, the Byzantine army was a formidable force. [12] Other contacts are reported taking place in 667, 701, and perhaps 719, sometimes through Central Asian intermediaries. Then, from 656 CE, relief came from an unlikely source. [12] These are recorded as having begun in the year 643 with an embassy sent by the king Boduoli (波多力, Constans II Pogonatos) to Emperor Taizong of Tang, bearing gifts such as red glass and green gemstones. Constans II (Greek: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II), also called Constantine the Bearded (Kōnstantinos Pogonatos), (November 7, 630 – September 15, 668) was Byzantine Emperor from 641 to 668. License unless otherwise noted, a daughter of the Byzantine army was a usurper a visit in 663 CE took!, in 642 quick learner and a talented general CE but had lost Jerusalem the! By Mezezius was quickly suppressed by the new Pope Vitalian in Rome on a in. Army was a mere 11 years of age and the Empire and the most important source of grain, capturing. Death of Constantine III and Gregoria and Gregoria after the death of Constantine,... Tiberius had been restored, but the new emperor was a quick learner and a talented general line been... 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