Chinookan definition: a language family comprising only Lower Chinook and Upper Chinook | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples During summer, temporary houses with sides of cattail mats and cedar bark roofs were convenient to move from one fishing location to the next. Chinookan consisted of three languages with multiple varieties. For example, Ethnologue 15e classifies Kiksht as Lower Chinook, while others consider it instead Upper Chinook (), and others a separate language. Although the last known native speaker of any Chinookan language died in 2012, the 2009-2013 American Community Survey found 270 self-identified speakers of Upper Chinook.[2]. ‘Chehalis’ is Chinookan — and therefore CW? Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Circa 1860: Remember Victoria’s queer Chinook town crier. The complete dictionary is available online through Project Gutenberg, www.gutenberg.org. Initial prefix serve primarily as nominalizers. Among the diversity of languages spoken at Fort Vancouver and the Village, the pidgin language Chinook Jargon, or Chinuk Wawa, emerged as the primary language for everyday communication. The Chinookan languages were a small family of languages spoken in Oregon and Washington along the Columbia River by Chinook peoples. All are used for nouns referring to objects as well. That’s to say, 8 of the 11 occurrences of the ethnonym have a “hushing” realization (“ch” rather than “ts”, “sh” rather than “s”), not native to Lower Chehalis. When the rivers rose in the spring, people moved out of the flood plain, towing the planks from their house behind their canoes. Miwok-Costanoan (Utian) Miwokan (Miwok) Mixtec. 1904: Riot at Nootka, and echoes of Sir James Douglas! The last fully fluent speaker of Kiksht, Gladys Thompson, died in 2012. -before k-stops) when the noun is feminine, neuter, dual or plural, but –tcE-,-tci-(Wishram-tc-) when the noun is masculine. And those White “drifters” would’ve thus been hearing this word in the earliest phase of Chinuk Wawa known to us from historical records. Katlamat, Cathlamet) Lower Chinook (a.k.a. Dell Hymes 1984: 365 . Katlamat, Cathlamet) Lower Chinook (a.k.a. See more. Only later did Chinook Jargon acquire significant English and French lexical items. This is an extract from George Gibb’s Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon, or, Trade Language of Oregon. 1916: Chinook as a wartime code language…again. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! (The vowel “i” in PNW languages was often heard by Whites as “ei”, thus the modern spelling in English using the letter “a”.) In the original Chinookan languages of the Chinook Nation, the river is imaɬoriyagaytɬ imaɬ, both translating to ‘Great Water.’ Courtesy of Tony A. Johnson, Chairman, Chinook Indian Nation 8 … Aside from certain secondary irregularities in the third person dual and third person plural which don't concern us, the pronominal subject of the transitive verb differs from the pronominal subject of the intransitive verb only in the case of the third person singular masculine and third person singular feminine, the difference between the two sets of forms being for the most part indicated by position and, in part, by the use of a "postpronominal" particle-g-which indicates that the preceding pronominal element is used as the subject of a transitive verb. Spoken L1 Language: Upper Chinook. Older linguistic classifications list Chinookan as a family of its own which consists of three languages with multiple lects: Kathlamet (a.k.a. (1) Lower Chinook, comprising two slightly different dialects, the Chinook proper and the Clatsop; (2) Upper Chinook which included all the rest of the tribes, though with numerous slight dialectic differences. The Natítanui language, as spoken by Q'lti, and preserved in the 1894 "Chinook Texts", gives us clues about Chinuk Wawa's history. Spoken L1 Language: Upper Chinook. The ergative refers to agent of a transitive verb, the absolutive to patient of a transitive or single argument of an intransitive, the dative to indirect object. There is evidence that in some communities (e.g. Uppercase definition, (of an alphabetical character) capital. Upper Chinook, also known as Kiksht, Columbia Chinook, and Wasco-Wishram after its last surviving dialect, is a recently extinct language of the US Pacific Northwest. Then declined, was recorded by linguists in the 1930s, and died out by the early 1900s. The latter, without resonant glottalization, would be more natural and more expected for Chinookan phonology, loanword or no.Â, What we can tell from Boas’s representation of Q’lti’s speaking is that we also have the distinctively Chinookan pronunciation –č́xÌ£ílÅ¡ (-c’hxÌ£ílsh) ~ čxÌ£ílÅ¡ (-chxÌ£ílsh). Kiksht shows six way tense distinctions: mythic past, remote past, recent past, immediate past, present, and future. As a stock language the Chinookan is sharply differentiated from that of surrounding families. ... (Upper Coquille) Miwok. The one change we haven’t yet accounted for is the č (ch) and č́ (c’h) in Chinookan. DICTIONARY OF THE CHINOOK JARGON, OR, In 2001, there were five remaining speakers of Wasco. They belonged to the Upper Chinook language division. Built from bits of Nootka Jargon, Lower Chinookan, nautical English, and SW Washington Salish, the new and rapidly growing Chinuk Wawa was the only language available and useful for that cross-cultural communication. The attested historical range of Plains Sign Talk among other sign languages in the US and Canada (excl. But it then gets treated according to Chinookan sound rules.Â, Sometimes Q’lti pronounces it much as in Lower Chehalis itself, which was in fact his main daily language at the time. Chinook Pidgin (Chinook Jargon) Chinook Wawa (Chinook Jargon) Chipewyan. The dialects of villages from the upper reaches of the Columbia River estuary to The Dalles have usually been named Upper Chinook. The number of tense/aspect prefix distinctions varies among the languages. As in many North American languages, verbs constitute complete clauses in themselves. Upper Chinook definition is - a Chinookan language of the Clackamas, Wasco, Wishram, and neighboring peoples. Reflexive prefixes can serve as reciprocals and as medio-passives. (Image credit: ChinookAndLowerChehalis.com) Quite a number of mentions occur there of the (Lower) Chehalis Salish neighbors of the Natítanui a.k.a. Chinook proper) Upper … Nominal suffixes indicate emphasis or contrast, specificity, succession in time, definiteness, plurality, and time, location, or similarity. Although the last known native speaker of any Chinookan language died in 2012, the 2009-2013 American Community Survey found 270 self-identified speakers of Upper Chinook. ( Log Out /  Extracts of the films taken during the 1930 Conference on PISL conservation, showing signers from various tribes. ASL and LSQ). Pre-contact distribution of Chinookan languages, "Detailed Languages Spoken at Home and Ability to Speak English", Once-dying Chinook Language Finds Future in Voices of Children, Aaron Clark, "Tribes strive to save native tongues (Wasco tribe's Kiksht language)", Indigenous language families and isolates, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chinookan_languages&oldid=998904466, Indigenous languages of the Pacific Northwest Coast, Indigenous languages of the North American Plateau, Endangered indigenous languages of the Americas, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, since 2012, with the death of Gladys Thompson, Hymes, Dell. Mathias D. Bergmann. Masculine prefixes appear with nouns designating male persons, feminine with those denoting female persons. Stress is marked as /á/. in Jan. 2001, but in the 90-day grace period the Quinault Tribe filed an appeal stating that the Chinook Nation made mistakes when applying for federal recognition. ... Survey of California and Other Indian Languages, Department of Linguistics, University of California, Berkeley, 1203 Dwinelle Hall The Natítanui language, as spoken by Q’lti, and preserved in the 1894 “Chinook Texts”, gives us clues about Chinuk Wawa’s history. Miwok-Costanoan ( Utian ) Miwokan ( Miwok ) Mixtec few hundreds who mixed with groups. The Dalles have usually been named Upper Chinook people were finally recognized by the early 1900s parallelism then... And French new vocabulary their oral literature was equally rich, and died Out by the diversity of speakers... 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