Eggs are hatches in 2-3 days; there are two nymphal stages and they are white in colour. is the main pest of tea grown at altitudes belo w 1400 m, and also the purple mite and pink mite, ... pink tea rust mite Acaphylla theae (Watt) (Acarina: Eriophyidae). Purple mite, Calacarus carinatus (Eriophyidae: Acarina): Damaged leaves characterized by the coppery brown discoloration; presence of numerous white cast skins of the mites along with the live mites; purple mites are prevalent on the under surface of mature leaves; adults are very small, spindle shaped, purple colour; fringed body with five longitudinal white waxy ridges on dorsal side, young ones moult three times; incubation period ranges 3-5 days with two nymphal stages while total developmental period was 6-11 days. Soil treatment can be carried out after six months of planting during April/May or November/December. Adults and immature stages suck the sap from tender shoots. Tea Red spider,Scarlet,Purple,Pink mites 2.25 Kg Cucurbits Powdery mildew 2 gm/Litre of water 7 Ronovit 80 WG AP-388 Bayer CropScience Limited Tea Red spider mites 2.20 Kg Jute Yellow mites 0.12% formulated 8 Cosavet DF AP-397 Alpha Agro Limited Jute Yellow mites 880 gm Termites: Microcerotermes sp. Affected leaves are distorted- irregularly rolled, stem infection leads to goose neck shape, dieback and snapping at the point of infection. Mite bites are often hard to identify. 81 0 obj <>stream stages : Egg laying: Egg, larva, nymph: Egg period (days) Mainly on upper surface and rarely on under surface of young leaves. Spraying is suggested in the early mornings or evenings when these bugs are active. Spraying dug out soil and pits with 1% copper oxychloride suspension and avoiding N application in the first year of planting is suggested as control measures. Tea tree oil also has insecticide properties and is a helpful home remedy to destroy mites and get rid of them for good. Branch Canker (Macrophoma theicola): Cancerous growth around the longitudinal wounds on the branches of tea bush. Eggs are bright red, elliptical, laid in clusters; incubation period is 7-10 days; developmental stages include three legged larva, protonymph and deutonymph and each developmental stage is followed by a quiescent stage; life cycle completed in 30-36 days. Red spider mite (RSM), Oligonychus coffeae has emerged as an important pest of tea in the last few years. Number of pests and diseases associated with tea plants in an area depends on the length of time for which it is cultivated in that area. Apart from these primary root diseases, secondary root diseases like charcoal stump rot (Ustulina zonata), violet root rot (Sphaerostilbe repens) and Diplodia root rot (Botryodiplodia theobromae) are also common. Grasshoppers: Orthacris incongruens and Orthacris robusta (Pyrgomorphidae: Orthoptera): Migrate to tea only when their natural weed hosts are eliminated and feed on mature tea leaves. Application of spore suspension of the entomopathogen, Parcilomyces jumosotroscus (UPASI sthain) Mycomihc @ 1.5 kg/ha or neem formulations 0.03-0.15% Aza @ 1000 ml/ha or 1% @ 200-400 ml/ha or 5% @ 100-200 ml/ha or sulphur formulations 80% @ 1000 g/ha or dicofol 18.5 EC @ 1000 ml/ha or ethion 50 EC @ 750 ml/ha are recommended. Mouth parts are piercing and sucking type. 114(1): 4-11. Biological control measures include allowing the build up of natural enemies (phytoseiid mites and coccinellid beetles (lady bird beetles) in tea ecosystem and application of spore suspension of the entomopathogen, Verticillium lecanii @ 1.5 kg/ha in the evening hours when humidity is more. Pink mites attack tender crop shoots where “Aassam” hybrids are more susceptible. Leaf eating beetles, Mimela xanthorrhina (Scarabaeidae: Coleoptera): Beetles prefer mature foliage; adult beetles are metallic green in colour. The purple tea mite usually occurs with the pink tea mite (Acaphylla theae) in India (Lindquist et al., 1996) and was reported as ‘generally associated’ with A. theae in the USA (in Los Angeles and ‘two other counties’) on Camellia (Armitage, 1946). Especially it is the best ingredient you can use for a refreshing bath. endstream endobj startxref Dr. C.S. Epsom salt is pink colored magnesium sulfate. The Handbook…, Of late, considering the constant usage of pesticides and to monitor the residues in the final produce, a well equipped test facility was established at UPASI TRI in 1994. Removal of affected portion by pruning to healthy wood and application of copper fungicide or spore suspension of biocontrol agents like Trichoderma and Gliocladium to cut ends are the curative measures. Similar observations were reported earlier in pink mite infested tea leaves in South India (Loganathan, 1992). Control measures are same as for flushworm. Grey blight (Pestalotiopsis theae) and brown blight (Glomerella cingulata): Pathogen gains entry through wounds and more prevalence in shear harvesting fields during monsoon, stripping, inadequate blister blight control leads to wounds. Leptothyrium die-back (Leptothyrium theae): Common in higher altitudes, noticed in fields recovering from pruning; pathogen enters through the prune cuts dieback of shoots below the cut ends; infected branches snap off easily. In some mites the larval stage is the only parasitic stage of their life cycle, for example Trombicula autumnalis. More than one thousand species of arthropod pests and nearly 400 pathogens are known to attack tea all over the world, though only about 300 species of insects and mites and 58 pathogenic fungi are recorded from tea in India. At the time of planting incorporation of biocontrol agents like Trichoderma species or Gliocladium virens @ 200 g per planting pit is recommended. Flushworm is naturally regulated by the larval and pupal parasitoids; if pest persists spray neem formulations 0.03-0.15% Aza @ 1000 ml/ha or 1% @ 200-400 ml/ha or 5% @ 100-200 ml/ha or spray the spore suspension of the entomopathogen, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus @ 1.5 kg/ha in the evening hours when humidity is more. During early stages of attack leaves turn pale and curl upwards while severe infestation leads to brownish discolouration. Preventive measures include avoid planting of susceptible clones in gravelly soils and drought prone areas, improving organic matter of marginal soils and using plants with good root system. Tea leaf miner, Tropicomyia theae (Agromyzidae: Diptera): Leaf mining fly inserts the eggs into the leaves; emerging larvae make meandering tunnels on the leaves; l arvae are cylindrical, tapering anteriorly and truncated posteriorly; pupate inside the tunnel at the leaf margin; developmental period is a month. Soil treatment with tridemorph or hexaconazole 0.5% @ 100 ml/hole punched at every square foot. If mite persists spray any one of the acaricides like dicofol 18.5 EC @ 1000 ml/ha, ethion 50 EC @ 750 ml/ha, fenpropathrin 10 E @ 500 ml/ha, combination of dicofol and ethion 500 ml each and dicofol and quinalphos @ 500 + 350 ml are effective against the pest. Blister blight (Exobasidium vexans): Favourable conditions for infection are cloudy weather (monsoon months); continuous leaf wetness for 11-13 hours coupled with relative humidity >60% and temperature between 17 to 22oC. The Bulletin of UPASI TRF is an occasional publication. Adult female elliptical in shape, bright crimson anteriorly and dark pruplish brown posteriorlym. Primary root diseases have been controlled by soil drenching with systemic fungicides like carbendazim, tridemorph, hexaconazole (0.5% solution) and application of biocontrol agents such as Trichoderma sp. Cultural control measures include monitoring the population dynamics by regular field assessment, shade/weed management and removal of alternate host plants (Bidens, Ageratum, Conyza, Crassocephalum, etc). Eggs reddish, spherical, provided with a small filament. AESA BASED IPM PACKAGE FOR TEA Tea-Plant description: Camellia sinensis is native to East commonly called as tea belong to family Theaceae, South and Southeast Asia, but it is today cultivated across the world in tropical and subtropical regions. Addition of non ionic wetting agent (5 ml/10 l of water) will be helpful in achieving better control. Infestation leads to discoloration of leaves. Diplodia root disease (Botryodiplodia theobromae): Commonly seen in low and mid-elevations area and debilitation of the bushes casused due to lack of starch reserves caused by continuous hard plucking and pruning the bushes soon after rush crop, prolonged soil moisture stress and damage due to pests and diseases. Alternate hosts are Grevillea, Indigofera and Erythrina. (Miridae: Heteroptera: Hemiptera): Adults and nymphs injure the tender plant parts. This aesthetic looking mineral is full of therapeutic values. For more detailed information, click the links below : Tea mosquito bug: Helopeltis theivora Scarlet mite: Brevipalpus californicus Looper cater pillar: Biston supressaria Purple mite: Calacarus carinatus Lobster Caterpillar: Neostauropus alternus Pink mite (or) Orange mite: Acaphylla theae Flush worm: Cydia leuocostoma Yellow mite: Polyphagotarsonemus latus in the planting pit (200 g/pit). Population builds up initiates in November/December and attains peak in February/March and declined during May/June. of India for the execution of Pesticide Residue Studies. Each developmental stage is followed by a quiescent stage and life cycle completed in 10-14 days. The laboratory has been…. Acarina Eriophyidae), yellow mite (Hemltarsonemus latus Acarina -Tarsonemidae) and pink mite (Acaphylla theae K. Acarina - Eriophyidae) are the five mite pests recorded in tea in Sri Lanka (Vitarana, 2000). Nymphal period: 1 - 2: Adult : 1 - 2: Symptoms of damage on leaves: Ovate, pale yellow, male is shorter than female with tapering abdomen Certain chemicals were recommended for control of thrips; quinalphos 25 EC @ 750 ml/ha; dimethoate 20 EC @ 500 ml/ha; endosulfan 35 EC @ 1000 ml/ha; quinalphos 25 EC + dichlorvos 76 EC @ 750+250 ml/ha. (Isoptera): Considered only as secondary pests and these are scavengers of dead and moribund wood. Control measures same as for red borer. White grub: Holotrichia sp. The mite's eggs hatch into hexapod larvae. Grasshoppers & crickets Infestation leads to discoloration of leaves. 42 (3), 31-36. Its incidence was high during July to December and low between January and June. 2018. Colonies of aphids consist of dark brown alate and apterous adult females and nymphs. The most popular essential oils associated with skin parasite treatment include Tea Tree, Cedar, Peppermint, Thyme, Eucalyptus and Oregano. Sewing blight: Orasema sp. Control measures are identical as suggested for caterpillars. The pesticide residue laboratory is accredited by National Accreditation Board for testing and calibration Laboratories (NABL)…, The Tea Research Institute at Valparai has seven divisions namely Botany, Soil Chemistry, Entomology, Pesticide Residue, Plant Pathology & Microbiology, Plant Physiology & Biotechnology and Tea Technology. Tea grows optimally in deep, well-draining, tropical red soils with an acidic pH between 4.5 and 6.0. Females are yellowish and bigger than the males and they carrying the “female nymphs” on their back. 64 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<66B37DCF254F0044861B43D46DCF857B>]/Index[53 29]/Info 52 0 R/Length 70/Prev 119028/Root 54 0 R/Size 82/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream Looper caterpillar, Buzura suppressaria (Geometridae: Lepidoptera): Young caterpillars feed on young leaves and mature larvae prefer older leaves; they made series of small holes along and a little away from the margin; in severe cases of attack, tea bushes completely denuded; female deposits upto 200 eggs in batches on the tree trunks; incubation period 7-10 days; on emergence, caterpillars suspend by silken threads and get dispersed by wind; larvae dark brown with pale greenish white lines on the back and side; on the leaves, they move like leeches; after 4-5 weeks, they pupated in the soil for a period of 3-4 weeks; pupa brownish, 2-2.5 cm long, life cycle completed in 8-10 weeks. 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