The Byzantine Empire at its height under the Emperor Justinian in c. 560 (Wikimedia Commons) Exactly what the Blues and the Greens stood for remains a … In 541 he invaded Lazica in the north. She has been featured by NPR and National Geographic for her ancient history expertise. His name at birth was Petrus Sabbatius. The four-book code was completed in stages. On the northern frontier in the Balkans the Roman provinces faced continual attacks from barbarian raiders. Justinian and Theodora were Blues fans. Northern Africa was reorganized as part of the empire and now included Sardinia, Corsica, the Balearic Islands, and Septem (Ceuta). In 559 the Bulgars and Slavs were joined by the Kotrigur Huns, who got as far south as Thermopylae and eastward through Thrace to the long wall protecting Constantinople. Justinian is remembered as one of the Byzantine Empire's ___ emperors while Theodora is one of the most ___ women in history Greatest(Important), notorious<-- INFAMOUS Nevertheless, their ___ worked and the Byzantine Empire mostly thrived under their rule Byzantine Empire DBQ Name_____ Date_____ Section_____ Background: When Justinian became emperor in 527 BCE, he was determined to maintain Constantinople as the “New Rome.” Referred to as “the emperor who never sleeps,” Justinian is known for several significant achievements, including the Justinian Code and the creation of the Hagia Sophia. Two important facets of Justinian’s foreign policy were his continuation of the age-old struggle with Persia and his attempt to regain the former Roman provinces in the West from the control of barbarian invaders. They and their fans began shouting Nika 'Victory' in the Hippodrome. The Justinian Dynasty ended in 602 with the deposition of Maurice and the ascension … The Codex Justinianus, or Code of Justinian, was a legal code. Justinian created a set of laws called the Justinian Code. After campaigns in which the Byzantine generals, among whom Belisarius was the most distinguished, obtained considerable successes, a truce was made on the death of Kavadh in September 531. Under the Justinian Dynasty, particularly the reign of Justinian I, the Empire reached its largest territorial point, reincorporating North Africa, southern Illyria, southern Spain, and Italy into the Empire. Despite fan loyalty, they attempted to reduce the influence of both teams, but too late. On Justin I’s death on August 1, 527, Justinian succeeded him as sole emperor. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Justinian expelled teachers of paganism from the Academy in Athens, closing the schools of Athens, in 529. Justinian was one of the most significant emperors of the Byzantine Empire, who ruled Constantinople from 527 A.D. till his death in 565 A.D., and during this period the Byzantine Empire reached new heights. A five-years’ truce was made in 545 and renewed in 551 but still did not extend to Lazica, which the Persians obstinately refused to restore, and a fierce struggle continued intermittently in this mountainous region. The treaty was on the whole favourable to the Byzantines, who lost no territory and whose suzerainty over the key district of Lazica (Colchis, in Asia Minor) was recognized by Persia. He was legally adopted by Justin and held important offices. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Justinian’s forces ultimately held off the Persians, but they did not hold off the barbarians. The fleet of about 500 vessels set out with 92 warships. The war dragged on under other generals and was to some extent hindered by bubonic plague. When Justinian came to the throne, his troops were fighting on the Euphrates River against the armies of the Persian king Kavadh (Qobād) I. Justinian is able to come to power in 527. Justinian is sometimes called "The Last of the Romans." Yet there are at least three possible reasons why this propaganda was justifiable for a Byzantine ruler. Seven ringleaders were executed, but one of each side survived and became a rallying point that integrated fans of both teams. Justinian met his wife Theodora, a circus dancer, during his consulate. There Justinian received a good education learning how to read and write as well as law and history. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, Biography of Justinian I, Emperor of Byzantine, Biography of Empress Theodora, Byzantine Feminist, The Code of Justinian (Codex Justinianus), Timelines and Chronologies of Roman Emperors, Most Important Figures in Ancient History, Constantinople: Capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, M.A., Linguistics, University of Minnesota. While still a young man, he went to Constantinople, where his uncle held high military command. Thinking that this was now his opportunity to support his fellow Catholics and to reassert direct control over the province, Justinian dispatched an army and sent Belisarius with a fleet to attack Sicily, while an embassy set off to gain the support of the powerful Franks now settled in Gaul. Justin adopted his nephew and brought him to Constantinople to guarantee his education. Justinian's wife, Theodora, was the daughter of a bear-keeper father who became bear-keeper to the "Blues" (relevant to the Nika Revolts, below), an acrobat mother, and she herself is considered to have been a courtesan. Belisarius, now reappointed commander in chief in the East, launched counteroffensives in 541 and 542 before his recall to Italy. Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus was the son of an obscure Thracian named Sabbatius and of a sister of Source for information on Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor: New Catholic Encyclopedia dictionary. The country was so ravaged by war that any return to normal life proved impossible during Justinian’s lifetime, and only three years after his death part of the country was lost to the Lombard invaders. Rigorous financial exactions and the rapacity of the soldiers made the new regime unpopular. Constantinople (now Istanbul) was the capital of the late Roman empire, but its ethereal mosaics, ivories, and metalwork often depart from classical naturalism. The veteran Belisarius saved the situation by mustering the civilian population. Belisarius could do little against the Ostrogoths in Italy. JUSTINIAN I, BYZANTINE EMPEROR Reigned 527 to 565; legislator, theologian, restorer of the Roman Empire, b. Tauresium, probably modern Caricin Grad, 482, d. Constantinople, Nov. 14, 565. The Byzantine Empire had its first golden age under the Justinian Dynasty, which began in 518 AD with the Accession of Justin I. The nearly forty-year reign of Emperor Justinian I (born 482; reign 527–65) (99.35.7406) heralded extensive territorial expansion and military success, along with a new synthesis of Greco-Roman and Christian culture seen at all levels of Byzantine culture. Omissions? He was an Arian and, though at first a tolerant and wise ruler, toward the end of his reign had begun to persecute the Catholics. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. Justinian also dispatched Belisarius to settle problems in Africa and Europe. This item will ship to United States, but the seller has not specified shipping options. Totila was defeated by superior numbers and strategy and was mortally wounded at the battle of Busta Gallorum. Justinian was unable to do anything to resolve the differences. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Thanks to his uncle Justin – who would be the future emperor – Justinian wasn’t destined for a common villager’s life. It was through Justin that Justinian advanced. Justinian, or Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus, was arguably the most important ruler of the Eastern Roman Empire. Justinian I, AD 527-565 BYZANTINE EMPIRE AE Nummus - NGC VG. In 544 Belisarius was sent against him with inadequate forces. He adopted Justinian either before or after he became emperor; hence the name Justinianus. It was therefore the duty of Justinian, as it was for later Byzantine emperors, to promote the good government of the church and to uphold orthodox teaching. Justinian I, also known as ‘Justinian the Great’ and ‘Saint Justinian the Great’, was a Byzantine (East Roman) Emperor and one of the most influential rulers in the western history. In 532, for example, an outbreak of civil unrest and rioting over some of Justinian's more authoritarian attitudes nearly forced him to flee Constantinopl… Work on the first book, the Codex Constitutionum, began shortly after Justinian’s elevation in 527. City after city was captured by the Ostrogoths until only Ravenna, Otranto, and Ancona remained in Byzantine hands. Justinian II (Greek: Ἰουστινιανός, romanized: Ioustinianos; Latin: Flavius Iustinianus Augustus; 668 – 11 December 711), surnamed Rhinotmetos or Rhinotmetus (ὁ Ῥινότμητος, "the slit-nosed"), was the last Byzantine Emperor of the Heraclian dynasty, reigning from 685 to 695 and again from 705 to 711. In 561 the Avars joined the raiders but were bought off with a subsidy. http://bit.ly/EHPatreonWatch the Justinian and Theodora series! In 518 Justin ascended the throne of the Byzantine Empire. Several plagues have been reported in the world’s history which have caused millions of death within a short period. Belisarius could make no headway without adequate reinforcements, and in 549 he was recalled to Constantinople. The religious position of the Monophysites (whom Justinian's wife, Empress Theodora, supported) conflicted with the accepted Christian doctrine from the Council of Chalcedon (A.D. 451). His successor, Khosrow I, finally came to terms, and the Treaty of Eternal Peace was ratified in 532. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. N.S. Updates? Justinian is sometimes called "The Last of the Romans." This code said that the emperor made all of the laws and interpreted the laws as well. In the Vandal kingdom of North Africa, Catholics had been subject to frequent persecution. A huge industrial kiln, or furnace, for the production of ceramic construction materials such as bricks and tiles, which dates back to the 6 th century AD, more specifically to the reign of Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Emperor Justinian I the Great, has been discovered during rescue excavations in the Danube city of Silistra in Northeast Bulgaria.. Today’s Silistra is a successor of the … The Plague of Justinian was a pandemic that afflicted the Byzantine Empire, including its capital Constantinople, in the years 541–542 AD. Utilizing the assistance of his strong, wealthy wife … Now a mob, they appointed a new emperor. At the same time, the Vandals were threatened by the Moorish tribes of Mauretania and southern Numidia. Often referred to as the last Latin emperor, Justinian sought about restoring the Ancient Roman Empire by reconquering many of the Western lands. These attacks from beyond the Danube did immense damage, and, although fortifications and defense works were built and strengthened in the Balkans and in Greece, the newcomers were neither effectively repulsed nor assimilated by the Byzantines. He took the Roman name “Justinianus” from his uncle, Justin. Justinianus was a Roman name that he took from his uncle, the emperor Justin I, to whom he owed his advancement. Fortunately for Justinian, his uncle Justin was a rising star in the emperor's imperial guard. When the truce was again renewed in 557, however, Lazica was included. Justinian was responsible for the construction of the Hagia Sophia, the center of Christianity in Constantinople. He Expanded His Empire To A Significant Degree. He hoped to come to terms with Justinian, but in 552 a powerful army was sent against him under the eunuch commander Narses. War broke out again in 540, when Justinian was fully occupied in Italy. Though not an active soldier himself, Justinian initiated an e… Justinian I was born of peasant parents. In 527 Justinian was elevated to the rank of co-emperor. Originally a church, later a mosque, the 6th-century Hagia Sophia (532–537) by Byzantine emperor Justinian the Great was the largest cathedral in the world for nearly a thousand years, until the completion of the Seville Cathedral (1507) in Spain. Justinian was a Christian emperor of the Roman Empire on the cusp between Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Contact the seller- opens in a new window or … The Justinian Code was law throughout the empire. The mosaics here are perhaps the greatest of early Byzantine if not all post-Roman mosaics; they do serve as embellishment to reinforce the grandeur of Justinian, perhaps simultaneously last Roman emperor and first Byzantine emperor. His family had been humble farmers just a generation before, but his uncle Justin c. 450–527) had changed their fortunes when he went to Constantinople and became a me… His mother Vigilantia was the sister of the Excubitor (Imperial bodyguard). In the face of considerable opposition from his generals and ministers, Justinian launched his attack on North Africa to aid Hilderich in June 533. In Italy, the mother province of the Roman Empire in which the older capital city (Rome) was situated, Justinian found a situation similar to that in North Africa and particularly favourable to his ambitions. 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